Pre-hatch brood amalgamation(intraspecific nest parasitism) was studied for three years (1991-1993) in a colony of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) breeding near Churchill, Manitoba.
Pre-hatch brood amalgamation(intraspecific nest parasitism) was studied for three years (1991-1993) in a colony of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) breeding near Churchill, Manitoba.
Evidence of Population Declines among Common Eiders Breeding in the Belcher Islands, Northwest Territories
Information regarding the status of common eiders Somateria mollissima breeding in the Canadian Arctic is lacking. In 1997, we surveyed five island archipelagoes in the Belcher Islands in Hudson Bay (56 00'-57 30'N, 79 30'-80 00'W) from 3 - 23 July 1997.
U.S. Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull. 643. 143pp.
U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull.130. Washinton D.C. 396pp.
Bird Study 29:55-66
Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5E2 ALISAUSKAS, RAY T.
Importance Of Common Eiders In An Intertidal Community: Predation, Disturbance, And Indirect Effects
Intertidal community ecology is an extremely well developed field. However, sea ducks are frequently neglected in intertidal community studies, because they are viewed as transient or not sufficiently numerous to have an effect.
The effect of body condition on subsequent creche attendance in Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima)
Creches are groups containing any number of adult female(s) and duckling(s), two or more of which are parentally unrelated.
On 24 March 1989, the T/V Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling approximately 41 million liters of crude oil (Piatt and Lensink 1989, Piatt et al. 1990).
Movement or emigration can significantly effect estimates of survival obtained from capture-mark-recapture (CMR) studies. We estimate both movement and survival of a molting and wintering population of Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) in coastal southwestern British Columbia.
Over 2500 Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) have been marked with individually identifiable tarsal leg bands in the Pacific Northwest of North America. Two of these populations have been intensively studied near Vancouver, British Columbia over three winters (1994-1996).
Many birds species exhibit a resource based mating system where males defend breeding territories. This mating system is thought to have lead to male-biased philopatry as male birds are better able to defend familiar territories.
Using observations on 28 individually marked male Harlequin Ducks from mid-June until late November, we describe plumage changes which occur as individuals proceed from the alternate plumage through basic to the return of the new alternate plumage.
Unlike most other birds, waterfowl pair on their wintering grounds, not the breeding grounds. Across waterfowl species, larger dabbling ducks pair the earliest (starting in November), smaller dabblers and diving ducks pair closer to the spring.
The bright plumage of male ducks in sexually dichromatic species is thought to have evolved through intense sexual selection.
Winter pair formation is one of the more unique aspects of waterfowl biology. Besides the dabbling ducks, relatively little is known about the chronology of pair formation and factors, such as molt chronology, which cause the between individual variation in the timing of pair formation.
Population demography models are valuable tools in detecting population trends and identifying crucial components in the life history of a species. They are also useful in determining critical research needs to estimate needed parameters.
A small population of moulting and wintering Harlequin ducks were monitored between July 1994 and May 1995 near White Rock, B.C. In all 72 birds were captured during the wing moult and were banded with individually identifiable coloured tarsal bands.
Winter Philopatry In Harlequin Ducks: Implications For Their Conservation In The Strait Of Georgia, BC
Habitat use and requirements for wintering birds has only recently received attention compared to breeding habitat use and requirements. For waterfowl, quality wintering habitat is important for not only surviving the winter period, but for courtship and pair bond formation as well.
The Condor 100:551-555 © The Cooper Ornithological Society 1998
Ornis Scand. 2:17-26. 21:218-229 Brooks, A. 1903. Notes on the birds of the Cariboo district, B.C. Auk 20:277-284.
British Columbia. Syesis 7:201-233.
J. Wildl. Manage. 44:217-219
Intraspecific and interspecific brood parasitism occur frequently in waterfowl. We examine the consequences of these behaviors to the population dynamics of Barrow's and Common Goldeneyes during a 10 year study period in central British Columbia.
Molecular Genetic Characterization Of Spatial Population Structuring In Contemporary And Historical Populations Of The Threatened Spectacled Eider
Understanding the ecological and evolutionary forces which influence the abundance and diversity of biological resources is important for effective management and conservation.
Philopatry In Nesting Adult Female Spectacled Eiders At Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska
In response to the dramatic decline of the species (early 1970's to 1990's) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, I conducted a nesting ecology study on spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) at Kigigak Island from 1992-1996.
Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri) populations in western Alaska have declined precipitously since the late 1970's. Subsequently, the species was listed as threatened in 1993.
In 1995 we conducted a pilot study of brood ecology of the Common Eider Somateria mollissima with specific reference to movements, habitat use and behaviour of both adult females and ducklings on the Wolves Archipelago in the Bay of Fundy.
Ornithologica 16:22-32 (In Russia)
Can. Field-Nat. 96:295- 300.
Ornithol. Monogr. No. 18
Because of their relative unimportance to recreational hunters, almost nothing is known about the population dynamics of waterfowl in the tribe Mergini in North America.
We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) , white-winged scoter (M. fusca) , black scoter (M.
In 1993-1996, we studied the breeding ecology of a small concentrated population of Surf Scoters Melanitta perspicillata on the southern edge of the breeding range in Quebec.
Egg Laying Intervals And Nutrient Reserve Use Of Breeding Female Buffleheads And Barrow's Goldeneyes
This study was conducted to investigate nutritional aspects of reproduction in female Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Barrow's Goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica) breeding in central British Columbia in 1993 - 95.
Mitochondrial DNA control region sequence variation in Common Eiders reveals extensive mixing of subspecies
We sequenced a hypervariable 319 bp portion of the control region of mitochondrial DNA in five subspecies of Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima) and an outgroup sample of King Eiders (S. spectabilis). Variation was found at 71 sites (22%), which defined 56 haplotypes in the total sample.
The incidence of lead shot ingestion in waterfowl has declined in the lower Great Lakes (LGL) following the 1999 Canada-wide ban on use of toxic shot for waterfowl hunting, but few data exist on ingestion frequencies of spent shot or fishing weights for sea ducks wintering at the LGL.
Population delineation and wintering ecology of Surf Scoters have been studied in detail through much of their range. A conspicuous gap exists for Southeast Alaska, which is near the northern end of their winter distribution.
ABSTRACT.-The at-sea distribution of the threatened Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri) has
remained largely undocumented. We identified migration corridors, staging and molting areas, and
Adams PA, Robertson GJ, Jones IL. 2000. Time-activity budgets of Harlequin Ducks molting in the Gannet Islands, Labrador. Condor 102(3):703-708.
Seasonal migration dynamics of the long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis), the common scoter (Melanitta nigra), and the velvet scoter (Melanitta fusca) in Estonia.
Ader A, Kespaik J. 1996. Seasonal migration dynamics of the long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis), the common scoter (Melanitta nigra), and the velvet scoter (Melanitta fusca) in Estonia. Gibier Faune Sauvage 13(3):1297-1385.
Social Courtship and Pair Bonding of Common Goldeneyes Bucephala-Clangula Wintering in Minnesota USA.
Afton AD, Sayler RD. 1982. Social Courtship and Pair Bonding of Common Goldeneyes Bucephala-Clangula Wintering in Minnesota USA. Canadian Field-Naturalist 96(3):295-300.
Evidence of Long-Term Pair Bonds in Barrow's Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica)
Jean-Pierre L. Savard
Vol. 102, No. 2 (Apr., 1985), pp. 389-391
(article consists of 3 pages)
Declines in marine bird populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska coincident with a climatic regime shift.
Agler BA, Kendall SJ, Irons DB, Klosiewski SP. 1999. Declines in marine bird populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska coincident with a climatic regime shift. Waterbirds 22(1):98-103.
Waterbirds The International Journal of Waterbird Biology (1999)
Morphology of Flightlessness in Chendytes , Fossil Seaducks ( Anatidae: Mergini ) Of Coastal California
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (1993) Volume: 13, Issue: 2, Pages: 185 - 199
PNAS March 18, 2008 vol. 105 no. 11 4077-4078
Behavioral Responses to Decreasing Day Length in Wintering Sea Ducks
Geir H. Systad, Jan O. Bustnes and Kjell E. Erikstad
Vol. 117, No. 1 (Jan., 2000), pp. 33-40
(article consists of 8 pages)
Numbers of scoters (black, surf, and white-winged) and long-tailed ducks wintering in the Maritime provinces of Canada and the Chesapeake Bay (MD and VA, USA) have noticeably declined in recent years.
Techniques for Determining the Availability of Food Items to Seaducks Wintering on the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland
Introduction: Historically, the Chesapeake Bay has been a major wintering area for seaducks.
Diving ducks wintering in Chesapeake Bay during the last 50 years have accounted for 23% of Atlantic Flyway and 9% of North American populations based on aerial surveys. Continental and local factors have affected these population changes.
Habitat Use of Surf Scoters Wintering in The Mesohaline Region of the Mainstem Chesapeake Bay, Maryland
Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park,
j. Raptor Res. 37(2):164-166¸ 2003 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.
While studying the ecology of sea ducks wintering around the Belcher Islands, we
also recorded Snowy Owls (Gilchrist and Robertson 2000). Herein, we expand on
Abstract: In 1916, the United States of America entered into a treaty with the United Kingdom, acting on behalf of Canada, to protect migratory birds from unrestrained killing. Two years later, Congress enacted the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) to give effect to this convention.
ENVIRONMENTAL LAW [Vol. 38:1167
The “challenges facing wind energy remain both substantial and complex.Wildlife impacts
serve as one such obstacle for the wind industry, and as wind power expands in the United
Condo (2007) Volume: 109, Issue: 1, Pages: 216-222
Fisheries Oceanography Vol 10 Issue supplement s 1 pages 149-158
Foraging Behavior of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) and White-winged Scoters (M. fusca) In Relation to Clam Density: Inferring Food Availability and Habitat Quality
Abstract.—Birds are known to modify their foraging behavior in relation to food availability.
Once understood, these relationships can be used to draw inferences about relative food
Faanes, Craig A., Cleveland Vaughn, Jr., and Jonathan M. Andrew. 1992. Birders and U.S. Federal Laws. Birding. 24(5):299-302. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
Limited genetic differentiation among breeding, molting, and wintering groups of the threatened Stellers eider: the role of historic and contemporary factors.
Conservation Genetics 6:743-757.
Site Fidelity Is an Inconsistent Determinant of Population Structure in the Hooded Merganser ( Lophodytes Cucullatus ):
Site Fidelity Is an Inconsistent Determinant of Population Structure in the Hooded Merganser ( Lophodytes Cucullatus ): Evidence From Genetic, Mark–Recapture, and Comparative Data
The Auk (2008) Volume: 125, Issue: 3, Pages: 711-722
The Condor 97:233-255 The Cooper Ornithological Society 1995
Abstract. Phylogenetic relationships of modem seaducks (Me&i) were investigated
using a cladistic analysis of 137 morphological characters. The analysis produced a single
1993 Proc. Annu. Conf. SEAFWA
Other laws also gave particular attention to breeding animals: gathering the eggs of birds
was prohibited in 1533 and in 1710, salmon were protected during their spawning runs, so
Wildl. Biol. 12: 257-265.
“As the Eider is a bird very resistant to shot, often 2-3 birds are wounded for each that is shot dead…”
(Müller, South Greenland, 1906)
The large numbers of common eiders Somateria mollissima and king eiders S. spectabilis wintering
ABSTRACT.—The ingestion of spent lead shot was known to cause mortality in wild waterfowl in the US a
century before the implementation of nontoxic shot regulations began in 1972. The biological foundation
ARCTIC Vol. 57, No. 1 (March 2004) P. 27–36
This report outlines the results of the internationally coordinated census of wintering waterbirds in the Baltic Sea 2007-2009 undertaken under the SOWBAS project (Status of wintering Waterbird populations in the Baltic Sea).
This report looks at three natural areas in the boreal forest that are critical for birds,
but that are coming under pressure from industry, hydropower, and climate change.
We discuss some strong policy steps governments must take in order to protect the
The Condor 113(1):52-60. 2011
Arctic (2000) Volume: 53, Pages: 53-60
The Alaska breeding population of Steller’s
Eider (Polysticta stelleri) was classified as
threatened under the Endangered Species Act in
June 1997 (USFWS 2002). Recent records suggest
that the species’ current breeding range in northern
Origin and Availability of Large Cavities for Barrow’s Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica), a Species at Risk
Large secondary-nesting birds such as ducks rely on appropriate cavities for breeding.
JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 72(6):1388–1393; 2008)
Breeding propensity, the proportion of sexually mature females that initiate egg production,
can be an important demographic trait when considering reproductive performance and,
More than 90% of the world’s population of Barrow’s Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica) breeds from central Alaska to northern California (Robert et al. 2000). The species also breeds in Iceland, where the population is estimated at approximately 2000 birds (Robert et al. 2000).
SILENT STRESSORS: SUBLETHAL INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN PACIFIC SCOTERS
Jessica L. Hallman*,
Mechanisms of Population Heterogeneity Among Molting Common Mergansers on Kodiak Island , Alaska: Implications for Genetic Assessments of Migratory Connectivity
Quantifying population genetic heterogeneity within nonbreeding aggregations can inform our understanding
of patterns of site fidelity, migratory connectivity, and gene flow between breeding and nonbreeding areas.
Ornis Scandinavica 19: 249-256
North American populations of breeding surf scoters and long-tailed ducks appear to be decreasing. Along the Atlantic coast, wintering populations of surf scoters are suspected to be decreasing, while the status of wintering populations of long-tailed ducks remains unknown.
Condor Nov-Dec 62(6). Papers in Ornithology, Paper 70
No population objectives are listed for any sea duck population in the most recent (2004) update
or earlier versions of the Plan. The primary reason for lack of sea duck objectives is a lack of
The Condor 107: 173-177
Cooper Ornithological Society
Condor 107: 637-647
The Cooper Ornithological Society
Variation in metabolic rate was based on relationship between three factors: body weight, food habits and the altitude at which the birds live.
J Anat Physiol. 1892 January; 26(Pt 2): 199–203.
Relative roles of eelgrass vs. hard-mixed substrates as habitatfor scoters (Melanitta spp.) in Puget Sound
Scoters ( Melanitta spp. ) are sea ducks that breed in freshwater wetlands of Canada and Alaska and winter in estuaries and bays on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts (Fig. 1). As with most sea ducks, scoter populations have declined in many parts of their Pacific Coast ranges.
Effects of temperature and mussel size on intertidal mussel bed infaunal communities: implications for climate change and biodiversity.
While mussel beds can withstand the changing tides, global climate change may cause damage to these diverse ecosystems. As the amount of carbon dioxide in the air increases, so does the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in seawater.
The value of herring spawning events to spring conditioning of scoters in the Puget Sound Georgia Basin
PSAMP Marine Bird Component
The role of herring spawning grounds as Marine Protected Areas for scoters (Melanitta spp.) in the Puget Sound-Georgia Basin
Scoters and other waterbirds congregate in dramatic numbers to consume Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) spawn each spring along most of the Pacific Coast.
This study deals with the influence of benthos abundance when
assessing the potential impact of a small wind park on wintering sea
ducks. Using the Before-After-Control-Impact design, it was suggested
in a recent study (Guillemette et al. 1998) that the wind park provoked
Influence of annual variation in food supply on abundance of wintering common eiders Somateria mollissima
We investigated how the annual variation in the abundance of wintering common eiders
Somateria mollissima was related to the abundance of benthos over 4 yr. The study was conducted at
2 sites, Tunø Knob and Ringebjerg Sand, Denmark, from 1994 to 1998. Benthos was sampled along
A perennial question in ornithology is whether flight has evolved mostly to facilitate access to food or as an anti-predator strategy. However, flight is an expensive mode of locomotion and species using flight regularly are associated with an expensive lifestyle.
We present a model for calculating energy-based carrying capacities for bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), a small North American sea duck wintering in coastal and estuarine habitats.
Reproductive ecology and habitat use of Pacific Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra americana) nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska
Abstract.—Abundance indices of Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra americana) breeding in Alaska indicate a long- term population decline without obvious cause(s). However, few life history data are available for the species in North America.
The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) is a partnership among federal, regional, academic and private sector parties that works to provide new tools and forecasts to improve safety, enhance the economy, and protect our environment.
The recent (near real-time) water temperatures are in degrees Fahrenheit (°F).
Data available at the onset of this project (population trends and indices of contaminant exposure) raised concern that Barrow's goldeneye populations may have been injured by the oil spill, may not be fully recovered, and may continue to suffer deleterious effects of the spill.
The goal of this project was to determine whether the Exxon Valdez oil spill had measurable sublethal effects on six species of migratory and resident seaducks in Prince William Sound and the Kodiak Archipelago.