Disturbance effects of high-speed ferries on wintering sea ducks
Human offshore activities are increasingly threatening waterbird conservation interests. The impacts of disturbance by high-speed ferries on Common Eiders
Somateria mollissima and Common Scoters Melanitta nigra were studied at a wintering site in the Kattegat Sea, Denmark. Spatial patterns of winter site
use, close-range distribution patterns relative to ferry passages and escape distances were examined using aerial surveys and ferry-based observations.