Disturbance effects of high-speed ferries on wintering sea ducks

Larsen, J.K.
Laubek, B.
Carl Bro as, Nordlandsvej 60, DK-8240 Risskov, Denmark. 1 Kyed Consult, Grumstrups All é 5, DK-8660 Skanderborg, Denmark.
Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust
Publication Date: 

Human offshore activities are increasingly threatening waterbird conservation interests. The impacts of disturbance by high-speed ferries on Common Eiders
Somateria mollissima and Common Scoters Melanitta nigra were studied at a wintering site in the Kattegat Sea, Denmark. Spatial patterns of winter site
use, close-range distribution patterns relative to ferry passages and escape distances were examined using aerial surveys and ferry-based observations.

Citation Information: 
Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust Wildfowl (2005) 55: 101-118