Resources related to Lines of Migration

Wintering Sea Duck Distribution Along the Atlantic Coast of the United States

Although monitoring data for sea ducks (Tribe Mergini) are limited, current evidence suggests that four of the most common species wintering along the eastern coast of the United States—long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis, white-winged scoter Melanitta fusca, surf scoter Melanitta perspicillata, and black scoter Melanitta americana—may be declining, while the status of American common eider Somateria mollissima dresseri is uncertain.

Managing North American Waterfowl in the Face of Uncertainty

Informed management of waterfowl (or any animal population), requires management goals and objectives, the ability to implement management actions, periodic information about population and goal related variables, and knowledge of effects of management actions on populations and goal related variables. In North American international Treaties mandate a primary objective of protecting migratory bird populations, with a secondary objective of providing hunting opportunity in a manner compatible with such protection.

Testing the feasibility and effectiveness of a fall Steller’s eider molt survey in southwest Alaska

Since 1992, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Migratory Bird Management has flown a spring
aerial survey in southwest Alaska to monitor trends in the Pacific population of Steller’s eiders
and improve understanding of habitat use and timing of spring migration. Due to constraints with
the traditional spring survey, we sought to test
the feasibility of an alternative monitoring approach using photography of fall molting flocks
along the Alaska Peninsula. Our goal was to determine whether different survey timing and methods

Stellers Eider Spring Migration Surveys Southwest Alaska 2012

The majority of the Pacific population of Steller's eiders migrates along the Bristol Bay coast of the
Alaska Peninsula in the spring, crosses Bristol Bay toward Cape Pierce, then continues northward
along the Bering Sea coast. Most then cross the Bering Strait to their breeding grounds in Siberia, with
a smaller number continuing north to the Alaska North Slope to breed (U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
2002, Gill et al. 1978). During migration the eiders linger to feed at the mouths of lagoons and other

Monitoring Beaufort Sea Waterfowl and Marine Birds Aerial Survey Component

The U.S. Department of Interior investigated potential disturbance effects of human
activities on the distribution and density of Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis), and eiders
(Somateria spp.) in lagoons and offshore waters of the south-central Beaufort Sea. The primary
objectives of this study were to compare Long-tailed Duck population trends between
“industrial” and “control” areas, describe the relationship between bird density and human activities, and document distribution patterns of eiders and other marine birds in the south-central

Waterfowl Breeding Population Survey Coastal Plain Alaska 2011

Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of
Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain Waterfowl Breeding Population Survey (ACP
survey) were similar to those employed since 2007, when a single survey was implemented to address objectives of
two pre-existing surveys: the geographically comprehensive 1986 ACP survey conducted in mid-June to early July,
and the geographically limited 1992-2006 North Slope Eider Survey, conducted in early to mid June to target the

Reproductive ecology and habitat use of Pacific Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra americana) nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

Abstract.—Abundance indices of Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra americana) breeding in Alaska indicate a long- term population decline without obvious cause(s). However, few life history data are available for the species in North America. In 2001-2004, information was collected on nesting habitat and reproductive parameters (i.e. com- ponents of productivity) from a population of Black Scoters nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. A total of 157 nests were found over four years.

Influence of annual variation in food supply on abundance of wintering common eiders Somateria mollissima

We investigated how the annual variation in the abundance of wintering common eiders
Somateria mollissima was related to the abundance of benthos over 4 yr. The study was conducted at
2 sites, Tunø Knob and Ringebjerg Sand, Denmark, from 1994 to 1998. Benthos was sampled along
permanent transects in November, and common eiders counted and localized from observation
towers during the winter. The benthic community was dominated by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis,