Resources related to Breeding Habitat

Managing North American Waterfowl in the Face of Uncertainty

Informed management of waterfowl (or any animal population), requires management goals and objectives, the ability to implement management actions, periodic information about population and goal related variables, and knowledge of effects of management actions on populations and goal related variables. In North American international Treaties mandate a primary objective of protecting migratory bird populations, with a secondary objective of providing hunting opportunity in a manner compatible with such protection.

A Management Plan for Barrows Goldeneye Bucephala islandica Eastern Population

The world distribution of Barrow’s Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica) consists of three
separate populations: 150 000 to 200 000 birds in western North America (Eadie et al 2000),
a resident population of 2000 in Iceland (Gardarsson 1978), and approximately 4500 birds in
eastern North America (Savard and Dupuis 1999; Robert et al 2000a). The breeding range is
discontinuous in North America and is largely restricted to northwestern North America, where
more than 90% of the world’s population breeds (del Hoyo et al 1992). Little is known of the

Stellers Eider Spring Migration Surveys Southwest Alaska 2012

The majority of the Pacific population of Steller's eiders migrates along the Bristol Bay coast of the
Alaska Peninsula in the spring, crosses Bristol Bay toward Cape Pierce, then continues northward
along the Bering Sea coast. Most then cross the Bering Strait to their breeding grounds in Siberia, with
a smaller number continuing north to the Alaska North Slope to breed (U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
2002, Gill et al. 1978). During migration the eiders linger to feed at the mouths of lagoons and other

Monitoring Beaufort Sea Waterfowl and Marine Birds Aerial Survey Component

The U.S. Department of Interior investigated potential disturbance effects of human
activities on the distribution and density of Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis), and eiders
(Somateria spp.) in lagoons and offshore waters of the south-central Beaufort Sea. The primary
objectives of this study were to compare Long-tailed Duck population trends between
“industrial” and “control” areas, describe the relationship between bird density and human activities, and document distribution patterns of eiders and other marine birds in the south-central

Waterfowl Breeding Population Survey Coastal Plain Alaska 2011

Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of
Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain Waterfowl Breeding Population Survey (ACP
survey) were similar to those employed since 2007, when a single survey was implemented to address objectives of
two pre-existing surveys: the geographically comprehensive 1986 ACP survey conducted in mid-June to early July,
and the geographically limited 1992-2006 North Slope Eider Survey, conducted in early to mid June to target the

Alaska - Yukon Waterfowl breeding Population Survey 2011

Waterfowl breeding conditions within the survey area depend largely on the timing of spring
phenology. Relatively normal spring phenology occurred in Interior and Coastal Alaska in 2011.
Overall, waterfowl production is expected to be good across the survey area compared to
previous long-term (1957-2010) production.
Total duck numbers were down 28% from the previous 10-year mean, but were only down 3%
from the long-term mean (1957–2010). Dabbler ducks decreased from the previous 10-year

Trends in Duck Breeding Populations 1955-2013

This report summarizes information about the status of dabbler duck populations and wetland habitats during
spring 2013, focusing on areas encompassed by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife (USFWS) and Canadian Wildlife
Services’ (CWS)Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey (WBPHS). This report does not include
information from surveys conducted by state or provincial agencies.
In the traditional survey area, which includes strata 1–18, 20–50, and 75–77 (Figure 1), the total duck

Population Ecology of Pacific Common Eiders on the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

Knowledge of ecological factors that influence birth, death, immigration, and emigration provide
insight into natural selection and population dynamics. Populations of Pacific common eiders
(Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska declined by
50-90% from 1957 to 1992 and then stabilized at reduced numbers from the early 1990’s to the
present. This study investigates the primary underlying processes affecting population dynamics of

2013 Kodiak Island Cooperative Goldeneye Nest Box Project

Occupancy rate of available nest boxes used by Barrow’s goldeneye (Bucephala islandica)
hen was 40% (total, 18 boxes) in 2013, up from 35% and 19% occupancy rates seen in 2012
and 2011, respectively. The estimated 2013 average clutch size of 7.3 eggs was also an
increase from 2012 and 2011 estimated averages of 5.7 and 6.1 eggs per nest box clutch.
During the period 6 May to 1 Aug, 2013, nest boxes placed on six different lakes along the
Kodiak road system and Karluk Lake on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge were checked by