In late 2001, Cape Wind wind energy project (WEP) was proposed for Horseshoe Shoal in Nantucket Sound (the Sound), and comprehensive environmental review process began almost immediately. During the scoping phase of this project, Mass Audubon and others recommended that the environmental review include comprehensive surveys of avian use of the Sound. One of the focal areas was the use by winter waterfowl of the Sound and the proposed project area in order to gauge the risk of the project to this particular group of birds. Mass Audubon conducted aerial surveys of the Sound during the winter months to supplement studies conducted by the applicant (e.g., Perkins, et al. 2004).