Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (1993) Volume: 13, Issue: 2, Pages: 185 - 199
Anonymous. 2011 Bibliography of Clangula hyemalis - Linnaeus, 1758 (Long-tailed Duck ) in Deomurari, A.N. (Compiler), 2010. AVIS-IBIS (Avian Information System - Indian BioDiversity Information System) v. 1.0. Foundation For Ecological Security, India retrieved on 11/10/2011
Seaduck Bibliography 1991-2010 as compiled by Paul Flint
The Centre for Wildlife Ecology has several studies underway that address conservation issues affecting sea ducks along the Pacific coast. The issues, species, and populations being studied are shared concerns of the Centre for Wildlife Ecology, the Canadian Wildlife Service, and agency and academic collaborators throughout North America.
Sea duck Bibliography as compiled by Dan Esler
This study was conducted to investigate nutritional aspects of reproduction in female Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Barrow's Goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica) breeding in central British Columbia in 1993 - 95. Mean egg laying interval (Ò SE) for Buffleheads was 48.36 Ò 2.35 hr, which was similar to that of Barrow's Goldeneyes that laid, on average, every 45.32 Ò 1.40 hr.
We sequenced a hypervariable 319 bp portion of the control region of mitochondrial DNA in five subspecies of Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima) and an outgroup sample of King Eiders (S. spectabilis). Variation was found at 71 sites (22%), which defined 56 haplotypes in the total sample. A genealogical tree relating the haplotypes revealed three major clades, but with the exception of Common Eiders (S. v-nigra) from Alaska, they did not correspond with putative subspecies identities.
Pre-hatch brood amalgamation(intraspecific nest parasitism) was studied for three years (1991-1993) in a colony of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) breeding near Churchill, Manitoba. The amalgamation rate was highest (42.4% of nests) during the year with the highest nest density and good environmental conditions, and was lowest in the year with low nest density and poor conditions (20.2% of nests). Over the nesting season, foreign eggs were laid at the same time as normally laid eggs. Most foreign eggs were laid while the attendant female was laying her first and second eggs.