Resources related to Management

Damage Assessment Closeout-Injury Assessment of Hydrocarbon Uptake by Sea Ducks

The goal of this project was to determine whether the Exxon Valdez oil spill had measurable sublethal effects on six species of migratory and resident seaducks in Prince William Sound and the Kodiak Archipelago. The six seaduck species were harlequin ducks, Barrow's and common goldeneyes, and surf, black, and white-winged scoters. The harlequin ducks are both resident in and winter migrants to the oil spill area. The other species do not breed in the oil spill area but are winter migrants.

Recovery Status of Barrow's Goldeneyes

Data available at the onset of this project (population trends and indices of contaminant exposure) raised concern that Barrow's goldeneye populations may have been injured by the oil spill, may not be fully recovered, and may continue to suffer deleterious effects of the spill. This project is designed to critically assess the recovery status of Barrow's goldeneye populations through assemblage and analysis of all existent, relevant data.

Reproductive ecology and habitat use of Pacific Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra americana) nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

Abstract.—Abundance indices of Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra americana) breeding in Alaska indicate a long- term population decline without obvious cause(s). However, few life history data are available for the species in North America. In 2001-2004, information was collected on nesting habitat and reproductive parameters (i.e. com- ponents of productivity) from a population of Black Scoters nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. A total of 157 nests were found over four years.

To fly or not to fly: high flight costs in a large sea duck do not imply an expensive lifestyle

A perennial question in ornithology is whether flight has evolved mostly to facilitate access to food or as an anti-predator strategy. However, flight is an expensive mode of locomotion and species using flight regularly are associated with an expensive lifestyle. Using heart rate (HR) data loggers implanted in 13 female common eiders (Somateria mollissima), our objective was to test the hypothesis that a high level of flight activity increases their energy budget.

The role of herring spawning grounds as Marine Protected Areas for scoters (Melanitta spp.) in the Puget Sound-Georgia Basin

Scoters and other waterbirds congregate in dramatic numbers to consume Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) spawn each spring along most of the Pacific Coast. Spawning occurs later at progressively higher latitudes, and may thus provide critical staging areas for scoters acquiring reserves as they migrate north to breed.

Effects of temperature and mussel size on intertidal mussel bed infaunal communities: implications for climate change and biodiversity.

While mussel beds can withstand the changing tides, global climate change may cause damage to these diverse ecosystems. As the amount of carbon dioxide in the air increases, so does the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in seawater. The resulting acidification changes the basic chemistry of the oceans and decreases the growth rate of organisms which rely on dissolved calcium carbonate to build their shells.

Trends in Duck Breeding Populations 1955–2012

This report summarizes information about the status of duck populations and wetland habitats during spring 2012, focusing on areas encompassed by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife (USFWS) and Canadian Wildlife Services’ (CWS) Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey. We do not include information from surveys conducted by state or provincial agencies. In the traditional survey area, which includes strata 1–18, 20–50, and 75–77 (Figure 1), the total duck population estimate (excluding scoters [Melanitta spp.], eiders [Somateria spp.

SDJV Implementation Plan 2011-2014

At the inception of the SDJV, the lack of understanding about population delineation was seen as one of the highest priority topics for future work; this priority was confirmed during a 2010 review of program direction. Identifying links among breeding, molting, staging, and wintering areas will help improve the design of monitoring surveys and interpretation of trends, and more effectively direct management actions.