Resources related to Additive Mortality Factors

Recovery Status of Barrow's Goldeneyes

Data available at the onset of this project (population trends and indices of contaminant exposure) raised concern that Barrow's goldeneye populations may have been injured by the oil spill, may not be fully recovered, and may continue to suffer deleterious effects of the spill. This project is designed to critically assess the recovery status of Barrow's goldeneye populations through assemblage and analysis of all existent, relevant data.

Reproductive ecology and habitat use of Pacific Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra americana) nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

Abstract.—Abundance indices of Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra americana) breeding in Alaska indicate a long- term population decline without obvious cause(s). However, few life history data are available for the species in North America. In 2001-2004, information was collected on nesting habitat and reproductive parameters (i.e. com- ponents of productivity) from a population of Black Scoters nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. A total of 157 nests were found over four years.

To fly or not to fly: high flight costs in a large sea duck do not imply an expensive lifestyle

A perennial question in ornithology is whether flight has evolved mostly to facilitate access to food or as an anti-predator strategy. However, flight is an expensive mode of locomotion and species using flight regularly are associated with an expensive lifestyle. Using heart rate (HR) data loggers implanted in 13 female common eiders (Somateria mollissima), our objective was to test the hypothesis that a high level of flight activity increases their energy budget.

Influence of annual variation in food supply on abundance of wintering common eiders Somateria mollissima

We investigated how the annual variation in the abundance of wintering common eiders
Somateria mollissima was related to the abundance of benthos over 4 yr. The study was conducted at
2 sites, Tunø Knob and Ringebjerg Sand, Denmark, from 1994 to 1998. Benthos was sampled along
permanent transects in November, and common eiders counted and localized from observation
towers during the winter. The benthic community was dominated by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis,

Assessing the impact of the Tunø Knob wind park on sea ducks: the influence of food resources

This study deals with the influence of benthos abundance when
assessing the potential impact of a small wind park on wintering sea
ducks. Using the Before-After-Control-Impact design, it was suggested
in a recent study (Guillemette et al. 1998) that the wind park provoked
a decline in the abundance and a change in the distribution of common
eiders Somateria mollissima and common scoters Melanitta nigra .
However, the observed decline in sea duck abundance occurred concomitantly
with a decline of benthic food supplies. We measured concomitant

The role of herring spawning grounds as Marine Protected Areas for scoters (Melanitta spp.) in the Puget Sound-Georgia Basin

Scoters and other waterbirds congregate in dramatic numbers to consume Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) spawn each spring along most of the Pacific Coast. Spawning occurs later at progressively higher latitudes, and may thus provide critical staging areas for scoters acquiring reserves as they migrate north to breed.

Effects of temperature and mussel size on intertidal mussel bed infaunal communities: implications for climate change and biodiversity.

While mussel beds can withstand the changing tides, global climate change may cause damage to these diverse ecosystems. As the amount of carbon dioxide in the air increases, so does the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in seawater. The resulting acidification changes the basic chemistry of the oceans and decreases the growth rate of organisms which rely on dissolved calcium carbonate to build their shells.