Resources related to Energy Budgets

The role of herring spawning grounds as Marine Protected Areas for scoters (Melanitta spp.) in the Puget Sound-Georgia Basin

Scoters and other waterbirds congregate in dramatic numbers to consume Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) spawn each spring along most of the Pacific Coast. Spawning occurs later at progressively higher latitudes, and may thus provide critical staging areas for scoters acquiring reserves as they migrate north to breed.

Effects of temperature and mussel size on intertidal mussel bed infaunal communities: implications for climate change and biodiversity.

While mussel beds can withstand the changing tides, global climate change may cause damage to these diverse ecosystems. As the amount of carbon dioxide in the air increases, so does the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in seawater. The resulting acidification changes the basic chemistry of the oceans and decreases the growth rate of organisms which rely on dissolved calcium carbonate to build their shells.

Relative roles of eelgrass vs. hard-mixed substrates as habitatfor scoters (Melanitta spp.) in Puget Sound

Scoters ( Melanitta spp. ) are sea ducks that breed in freshwater wetlands of Canada and Alaska and winter in estuaries and bays on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts (Fig. 1). As with most sea ducks, scoter populations have declined in many parts of their Pacific Coast ranges. Three species of scoter can be found in wintering in Puget Sound, the common scoter ( Melanitta nigra ), the white-winged scoter ( Melanitta deglandi ) and the surf scoter ( Melanitta perspicillata ). The combined population of all three scoters declined by 57% between 1978-79 and 1992-99.

Sea Duck Joint Venture Strategic Plan 2008-2012

The fifteen species of sea ducks (Tribe Mergini) are the most poorly understood group of waterfowl in North America. The most basic biological information is unknown for some species. Few species have reliable population indices or estimates of annual productivity, and much of our knowledge is based on a very few, localized studies. Also, current survey design is unable to accurately estimate sea duck harvest.

Key Marine Habitat Sites for Migratory Birds in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories.

The Canadian Arctic contains much of Canada’s coastal and marine zones, and these areas support
tremendous numbers of marine birds. At the start of the 21st century, the Canadian marine zone is
the subject of much concern as a result of a variety of anthropogenic threats. The Canadian
Wildlife Service (CWS) is the federal agency responsible for the conservation of migratory bird
populations and their habitats in Canada. As part of its mandate, CWS has produced this report
identifying key marine habitat